מאמרים

ֳ´ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¯

לפניכם קישורים למאמרים מתוך האתר של מרכז המורים הארצי למתמטיקה בחינוך היסודי.
המאמרים מציגים ידע והצעות להוראת הנושא המתמטי שבו הם עוסקים. חלקם מאמרים המתורגמים מכתבי עת באנגלית, וחלקם מאמרים מתוך כתבי העת "מספר חזק" ו- מספר חזק 2000. המאמרים מוצגים בעברית וחלקם גם בערבית - לבחירתכם.

ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¸ ֳ¥ֳ§ֳ©ֳ±ֳ¥ֳ¸
ֳ®ֳ¡ֳ°ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¹ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ¦ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ²ֳ¬ ֳ²ֳ¶ֳ®ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¯   
ֳ¹ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ¹ ֳ¬ֳ§ֳ¬ֳ· ֳ¬ֳ¸ֳ¡ֳ² - ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ®ֳ ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ© ֳ₪ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ¡   
ֳ ֳ§ֳ£ ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ·ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¹ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ₪ - ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ ֳ ֳ§ֳ£ ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ·ֳ¸ ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ· ֳ ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ 8   
ֳ®ֳ¹ֳ§ֳ· ֳ₪ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ©ֳ°ֳ¥ ֳ¡ֳ¹ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪   
ֳ®ֳ₪ ֳ°ֳ²ֳ¹ֳ₪ ֳ²ֳ­ ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¸ֳ ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ©ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ«ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ₪?   
ֳ¹ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¬ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ¡ֳ₪   
ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳµ ֳ²ֳ£ ֳ¬-37 - ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ£ ֳ®ֳ¹ֳ§ֳ· ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ© ֳ¬ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ¡ ֳ¡ֳ«ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ₪   
ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪ ֳ®ֳ¶ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ÷   
ֳ®ֳ₪ ֳ ֳ´ֳ¹ֳ¸ ֳ¬ֳ²ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ²ֳ­ ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ ֳ¨ֳ¬ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ¯?   
ֳ₪ֳ°ֳ± ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ©ֳ£ֳ°ֳ¨ֳ¬ ֳ¥ֳ₪ֳ§ֳ©ֳ°ֳ¥ֳ× ֳ₪ֳ¸ֳ ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ±ֳ¨ֳ© ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ© ֳ¡ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ°ֳ£   
ֳ£ֳ¸ֳ× ֳ ֳ§ֳ¸ֳ÷ ֳ¬ֳ§ֳ¡ֳ¸ ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ§ֳ±ֳ¸   
ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ´ֳ¹ ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪   
ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ·ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ ֳ®ֳ¸ "ֳ₪ֳ¡ֳ°ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ£ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¹ֳ¢ ֳ₪ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ¥ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ¯ ֳ«ֳ¡ֳ±ֳ©ֳ± ֳ¬ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¢ֳ¡ֳ¸ֳ₪"   
ֳ©ֳ ֳ°ֳ¢ ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ© ֳ¥ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪ ֳ₪ֳ±ֳ©ֳ°ֳ©ֳ÷   
ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ ֳ¹ֳ·ֳ¸ֳ ֳ÷ֳ© - ֳ ֳ°ֳ©ֳ¢ֳ®ֳ₪   
ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ ֳ₪ ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ÷ֳ ֳ®ֳ÷ ֳ¬ֳ¶ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ© ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ£ - ֳ®ֳ©ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ© ֳ«ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ₪ ֳ¡ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¯ ֳ«ֳ¡ֳ±ֳ©ֳ± ֳ¬ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ ֳ₪   
ֳ₪ֳ¡ֳ°ֳ©ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪ ֳ²ֳ¬ ֳ£ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ© ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ¡ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ£ֳ©ֳ­ - ֳ§ֳ¬ֳ· ֳ¡   
ֳ´ֳ¬ֳ ֳ© ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ®ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¯   
ֳ®ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ¦ ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ©ֳ©ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ© ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ·ֳ¹ֳ¡ - ֳ¸ֳ®ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ¹ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ¯   
ֳ÷ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ₪ ֳ¬ֳ¹ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ÷ֳ¬ֳ®ֳ©ֳ£   
ֳ®ֳ§ֳ¡ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¸ֳ· ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ·ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ­   
ֳ¢ֳ ֳ¥ֳ± ֳ¥ֳ₪ֳ±ֳ£ֳ¸ֳ₪ ֳ₪ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ©ֳ÷: ֳ²ֳ¬ ֳ₪ֳ ֳ©ֳ¹ ֳ¥ֳ´ֳ²ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¬ֳ«ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ₪   
ֳ£ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¸ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¬ֳ´ֳ÷ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ¯   
ֳ§ֳ©ֳ±ֳ¥ֳ¸ ֳ·ֳ¶ֳ÷ ֳ ֳ§ֳ¸ֳ÷   
ֳ®ֳ¡ֳ§ֳ°ֳ© ֳ¡ֳ¦ֳ· ֳ¬ֳ±ֳ©ֳ°ֳ¥ֳ¯ ֳ¸ֳ ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ© ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ·ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¯   
ֳ´ֳ²ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ§ֳ·ֳ¸ "ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ·ֳ£ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ÷" ֳ¬ֳ«ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ÷ "ֳ°ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ«ֳ¥ֳ÷"   
ֳ«ֳ©ֳ¶ֳ£ ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ÷ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¯   
ֳ ֳ©ֳ× ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ÷ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ®ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¯ ֳ÷ֳ¸ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ© ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬ ֳ«ֳ¹ֳ®ֳ·ֳ¹ ֳ₪ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬ ֳ®ֳ·ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ·ֳ¬   
ֳ₪ֳ«ֳ÷ֳ©ֳ¡ֳ₪ ֳ¡ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¯   
ֳ²ֳ¬ ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¥ֳ ֳ°ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ­   
ֳ¹ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ÷ֳ¸ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ© ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¸   
ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ§ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ ֳ₪   
ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¹ ֳ¡ֳ£ֳ³ ֳ²ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ₪ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ«ֳ©ֳ¬ ֳ¡ֳ·ֳ¸ֳ₪   
ֳ¹ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ÷ֳ¸ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ© ֳ§ֳ©ֳ±ֳ¥ֳ¸ ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ© ֳ₪ֳ₪ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ²ֳ©ֳ®ֳ¯   
ֳ´ֳ©ֳ¸ֳ®ֳ©ֳ£ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ - ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ©ֳ₪ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ₪   
ֳ₪ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ¥ֳ ֳ÷ ֳ©ֳ£ֳ² ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ© ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ±ֳ©ֳ¯ ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ ֳ¸ֳ₪"ֳ¡ (ֳ¡-ֳ¢)   
ֳ©ֳ¹ֳ¸ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ₪ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ·: ֳ«ֳ¬ֳ© ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¹ֳ© ֳ ֳ¥ ֳ¸ֳ· ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ£ ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ¶ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ₪   
ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¥ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¢ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ«ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ¶ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ₪ֳ´ֳ²ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ₪ֳ÷ֳ¬ֳ®ֳ©ֳ£ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ²ֳ¶ֳ®ֳ­   
ֳ₪ֳ₪ֳ¹ֳ´ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ¦ֳ©ֳ·ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¢ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ«ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ '-ֳ£'   
ֳ©ֳ¹ֳ¸ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ₪ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ·: ֳ÷ֳ¬ֳ®ֳ©ֳ£ ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ£... ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ₪ ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ£...   
ֳ₪ֳ²ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ¸ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ±ֳ¥ֳ£   
ֳ¸ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¬ֳ¬ֳ  ֳ´ֳ§ֳ£: ֳ²ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ§ֳ·ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ¬ֳ£ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ₪ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ֳ¸ ֳ¬ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ£ ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷   
ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬ ֳ¥ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ·
ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ§ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¹ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ­: ֳ´ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ·   
ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ§ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¹ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ­: ֳ´ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ· (ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ¹ֳ×)   
ֳ¢ֳ²ֳ¢ֳ¥ֳ²ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¬ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ· ֳ₪ֳ ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ×   
ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ÷ֳ§ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¸ - ֳ·ֳ¶ֳ÷ ֳ ֳ§ֳ¸ֳ÷   
ֳ®ֳ«ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ²ֳ÷ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪ ֳ®ֳ°ֳ¶ֳ§ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ¸ֳ ֳ¬ֳ© ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©   
ֳ ֳ©ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ² ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ ֳ₪ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©   
ֳ₪ֳ±ֳ¡ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ× ֳ¥ֳ§ֳ¥ֳµ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ©ֳ­: ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ·ֳ¸ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬   
ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ´ֳ©ֳ¬ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ§ ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ© ֳ«ֳ¡ֳ±ֳ©ֳ± ֳ¬ֳ÷ֳ«ֳ°ֳ¥ֳ¯ ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ ֳ₪ ֳ¬ֳ÷ֳ¬ֳ®ֳ©ֳ£ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ·ֳ¹ֳ₪   
ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳµ ֳ²ֳ£ ֳ¬-37 - ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ£ ֳ®ֳ¹ֳ§ֳ· ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ© ֳ¬ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ¡ ֳ¡ֳ«ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ₪   
ֳ±ֳ©ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ¥ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ¢ֳ¬ֳ²ֳ£   
ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪ ֳ®ֳ¶ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ÷   
ֳ®ֳ₪ ֳ ֳ´ֳ¹ֳ¸ ֳ¬ֳ²ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ²ֳ­ ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ ֳ¨ֳ¬ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ¯?   
ֳ₪ֳ°ֳ± ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ©ֳ£ֳ°ֳ¨ֳ¬ ֳ¥ֳ₪ֳ§ֳ©ֳ°ֳ¥ֳ× ֳ₪ֳ¸ֳ ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ±ֳ¨ֳ© ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ© ֳ¡ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ°ֳ£   
ֳ£ֳ¸ֳ× ֳ ֳ§ֳ¸ֳ÷ ֳ¬ֳ§ֳ¡ֳ¸ ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ§ֳ±ֳ¸   
ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬ - ֳ¢ֳ¥ֳ¥ֳ¯ ֳ¥ֳ¶ֳ¡ֳ²   
ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ´ֳ¹ ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪   
ֳ·ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ₪ֳ¡ֳ°ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ¡ֳ°ֳ₪ ֳ₪ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬ֳ©   
ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ ֳ¹ֳ·ֳ¸ֳ ֳ÷ֳ© - ֳ ֳ°ֳ©ֳ¢ֳ®ֳ₪   
ֳ®ֳ₪ ֳ·ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ₪ ֳ«ֳ ֳ¹ֳ¸ ֳ®ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¥ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ²ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ®ֳ¹ֳ­ ֳ¦ֳ₪ ֳ¬ֳ  ֳ®ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¥ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ²ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ®ֳ«ֳ ֳ¯   
ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ ֳ₪ ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ÷ֳ ֳ®ֳ÷ ֳ¬ֳ¶ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ© ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ£ - ֳ®ֳ©ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ© ֳ«ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ₪ ֳ¡ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¯ ֳ«ֳ¡ֳ±ֳ©ֳ± ֳ¬ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ ֳ₪   
ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ·ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¶ֳ²ֳ©ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­   
ֳ®ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ¦ ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ©ֳ©ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ© ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ·ֳ¹ֳ¡ - ֳ¸ֳ®ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ¹ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ¯   
ֳ÷ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ₪ ֳ¬ֳ¹ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ÷ֳ¬ֳ®ֳ©ֳ£   
ֳ¥ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ£ ֳ²ֳ¬ ֳ±ֳ©ֳ®ֳ°ֳ© ֳ₪ֳ÷ֳ§ֳ¬ֳ·ֳ¥ֳ÷   
ֳ®ֳ¡ֳ§ֳ°ֳ© ֳ¡ֳ¦ֳ· ֳ¬ֳ±ֳ©ֳ°ֳ¥ֳ¯ ֳ¸ֳ ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ© ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ·ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¯   
ֳ«ֳ©ֳ¶ֳ£ ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ÷ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¯   
ֳ ֳ©ֳ× ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ÷ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ®ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¯ ֳ÷ֳ¸ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ© ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬ ֳ«ֳ¹ֳ®ֳ·ֳ¹ ֳ₪ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬ ֳ®ֳ·ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ·ֳ¬   
ֳ²ֳ¬ ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¥ֳ ֳ°ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ­   
ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ§ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ ֳ₪   
ֳ¹ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ ֳ¥ֳ´ֳ©ֳ°ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ´ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ÷ ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬   
ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¹ ֳ¡ֳ£ֳ³ ֳ²ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ₪ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ«ֳ©ֳ¬ ֳ¡ֳ·ֳ¸ֳ₪   
ֳ´ֳ©ֳ¸ֳ®ֳ©ֳ£ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ - ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ©ֳ₪ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ₪   
ֳ÷ֳ¹ֳ² ֳ£ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¬ֳ·ֳ£ֳ­ ֳ÷ֳ¬ֳ®ֳ©ֳ£ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ·ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¹ֳ¢ֳ© ֳ©ֳ±ֳ¥ֳ£ ֳ¡ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪   
ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬ ֳ¬ֳ¹ֳ­ ֳ¹ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ¨ֳ₪   
ֳ®ֳ¹ֳ§ֳ·ֳ© ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬: ֳ«ֳ©ֳ¶ֳ£ ֳ₪ֳ«ֳ°ֳ¥ ֳ ֳ¥ֳ÷ֳ­ ֳ¥ֳ₪ֳ¹ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¹ֳ°ֳ¥ ֳ¡ֳ₪ֳ­   
ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ¹ֳ¨ֳ§ ֳ¡ֳ«ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¢'-ֳ¨'   
ֳ₪ֳ₪ֳ¹ֳ´ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ¦ֳ©ֳ·ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¢ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ«ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ '-ֳ£'   
ֳ®ֳ© ֳ¶ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ× ֳ ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ§ ֳ₪ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬? ֳ₪ֳ ֳ­ ֳ ֳ´ֳ¹ֳ¸ ֳ¬ֳ¦ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ· ֳ ֳ¥ֳ÷ֳ¥?   
ֳ₪ֳ²ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ¸ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ±ֳ¥ֳ£   
ֳ¸ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¬ֳ¬ֳ  ֳ´ֳ§ֳ£: ֳ²ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ§ֳ·ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ¬ֳ£ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ₪ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ֳ¸ ֳ¬ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ£ ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷   
ֳ¹ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ¹ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ¬ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¬ֳ¹ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ¨ֳ₪ ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬   
ֳ¹ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¸ ֳ¥ֳ§ֳ©ֳ±ֳ¥ֳ¸
ֳ₪ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ²ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷   
ֳ°ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ§ ֳ±ֳ©ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ© ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¯ ֳ«ֳ«ֳ¬ֳ© ֳ¬ֳ´ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ§ ֳ₪ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ¡ֳ₪ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ÷   
ֳ₪ֳ¶ֳ£ֳ·ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ¹ֳ²ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ²ֳ¬ ֳ©ֳ£ֳ© ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ£ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ±ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ©   
ֳ®ֳ₪ ֳ¡ֳ®ֳ²ֳ¨ֳ´ֳ₪? ֳ§ֳ©ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ²ֳ¬ ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ¦ֳ¸ֳ÷ ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ©ֳ­   
ֳ₪ֳ¡ֳ°ֳ©ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪ ֳ²ֳ¬ ֳ£ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ© ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ¡ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ£ֳ©ֳ­ - ֳ§ֳ¬ֳ· ֳ¡   
ֳ´ֳ¥ ֳ₪ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ¡ - ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ§ ֳ·ֳ©ֳ¸   
ֳ£ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ¥ֳ§ ֳ²ֳ¬ ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ©ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ²: ֳ¡ֳ°ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ°ֳ¥ֳ÷   
ֳ©ֳ¹ֳ¸ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ₪ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ·: ֳ÷ֳ¬ֳ®ֳ©ֳ£ ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ£... ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ₪ ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ£...   
ֳ₪ֳ²ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ¸ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ±ֳ¥ֳ£   
ֳ±ֳ©ֳ®ֳ°ֳ© ֳ₪ֳ÷ֳ§ֳ¬ֳ·ֳ¥ֳ÷
ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ§ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¹ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ­: ֳ ֳ©ֳ°ֳ¥ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ ֳ°ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷   
ֳ®ֳ«ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ²ֳ÷ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪ ֳ®ֳ°ֳ¶ֳ§ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ¸ֳ ֳ¬ֳ© ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©   
ֳ ֳ©ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ² ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ ֳ₪ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©   
ֳ®ֳ₪ ֳ ֳ´ֳ¹ֳ¸ ֳ¬ֳ²ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ²ֳ­ ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ ֳ¨ֳ¬ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ¯?   
ֳ¥ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ£ ֳ²ֳ¬ ֳ±ֳ©ֳ®ֳ°ֳ© ֳ₪ֳ÷ֳ§ֳ¬ֳ·ֳ¥ֳ÷   
ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ§ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ ֳ₪   
ֳ¹ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬ ֳ¥ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ·
ֳ₪ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ²ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷   
ֳ°ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ§ ֳ±ֳ©ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ© ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¯ ֳ«ֳ«ֳ¬ֳ© ֳ¬ֳ´ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ§ ֳ₪ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ¡ֳ₪ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ÷   
ֳ₪ֳ±ֳ¡ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ× ֳ¥ֳ§ֳ¥ֳµ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ©ֳ­: ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ·ֳ¸ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬   
ֳ®ֳ₪ ֳ¡ֳ®ֳ²ֳ¨ֳ´ֳ₪? ֳ§ֳ©ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ²ֳ¬ ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ¦ֳ¸ֳ÷ ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ©ֳ­   
ֳ₪ֳ¡ֳ°ֳ©ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪ ֳ²ֳ¬ ֳ£ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ© ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ¡ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ£ֳ©ֳ­ - ֳ§ֳ¬ֳ· ֳ    
ֳ´ֳ¥ ֳ₪ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ¡ - ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ§ ֳ·ֳ©ֳ¸   
ֳ«ֳ©ֳ¶ֳ£ ֳ¬ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ²ֳ¦ֳ¸ ֳ¡ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ°ֳ©ֳ­?   
ֳ®ֳ₪... ֳ ֳ­...?   
ֳ£ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¸ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¬ֳ´ֳ÷ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ¯   
ֳ₪ֳ²ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ¸ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ±ֳ¥ֳ£   
ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¹ ֳ¡ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ·ֳ© ֳ₪ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ³, ֳ₪ֳ·ֳ©ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳµ ֳ¥ֳ₪ֳ´ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ¢
ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ§ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¹ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ­: ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ·ֳ© ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¯   
ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬ ֳ¡ֳ®ֳ ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ×
ֳ±ֳ©ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ¥ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ¢ֳ¬ֳ²ֳ£   
ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬ - ֳ¢ֳ¥ֳ¥ֳ¯ ֳ¥ֳ¶ֳ¡ֳ²   
ֳ¬ֳ·ֳ¸ֳ ֳ÷ ֳ¸ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬ ֳ¥ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ· ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¸ֳ¡-ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ÷ֳ©ֳ©ֳ­   
ֳ±ֳ£ֳ¸ ֳ₪ֳ´ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¥ֳ₪ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¹ ֳ¡ֳ±ֳ¥ֳ¢ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ©ֳ­
ֳ®ֳ₪ ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ¯ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪ ֳ¬ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ¯ ֳ¬ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ¯? (ֳ§ֳ¬ֳ· ֳ )   
ֳ®ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ² ֳ©ֳ¹ ֳ¶ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ× ֳ¡ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ·ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ²ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¸ ֳ±ֳ£ֳ¸ ֳ₪ֳ´ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷?   
ֳ¹ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ·ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ±ֳ£ֳ¸ ֳ₪ֳ´ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¥ֳ«ֳ©ֳ¶ֳ£ ֳ¬ֳ®ֳ°ֳ¥ֳ² ֳ ֳ¥ֳ÷ֳ¯   
ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ§ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¹ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ­: ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ·ֳ© ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¯   
ֳ¹ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ£ֳ¥ ֳ¹ֳ¬ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¥ֳ¹ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ°ֳ¥ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ÷
ֳ₪ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ²ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷   
ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ©ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ«ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ¹ֳ§ֳ©ֳ©ֳ₪   
ֳ₪ֳ ֳ©ֳ°ֳ¨ֳ¸ֳ°ֳ¨ ֳ¬ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ§ֳ©ֳ°ֳ¥ֳ× ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©   
ֳ´ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ§ ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ¹ ֳ¬ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷   
ֳ¬ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ¡ ֳ¡ֳ ֳ¥ֳ´ֳ¯ ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¢ֳ¡ֳ¸ֳ©: ֳ®ֳ²ֳ¡ֳ¸ ֳ¬ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ«ֳ°ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ±ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ©   
ֳ₪ֳ²ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ÷ ֳ©ֳ«ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ÷ֳ¬ֳ®ֳ©ֳ£ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¬ֳ₪ֳ²ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¹ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷   
ֳ₪ֳ¸ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ ֳ§ֳ£ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ²ֳ¬ ֳ₪ֳ²ֳ¬ֳ ֳ÷ ֳ¹ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷- ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ§ֳ₪ ֳ²ֳ­ ֳ®ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ¯ ֳ¥ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ¨ֳ¸   
ֳ²ֳ©ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ£ ֳ¬ֳ₪ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ£ֳ₪ ֳ¡ֳ´ֳ÷ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ¯ ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪ ֳ¡ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ₪"ֳ± ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ±ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ© (ֳ®ֳ ֳ®ֳ¸)   
ֳ÷ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ¯ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ¬ֳ÷ֳ© ֳ¹ֳ¢ֳ¸ֳ÷ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷   
ֳ±ֳ¸ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ¨ ֳ±ֳ«ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ© ֳ«ֳ«ֳ¬ֳ© ֳ¡ֳ´ֳ÷ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ¯ ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷   
ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ· ֳ ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ×
ֳ¢ֳ²ֳ¢ֳ¥ֳ²ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¬ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ· ֳ₪ֳ ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ×   
ֳ₪ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ· ֳ₪ֳ ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ× - ֳ ֳ¡ֳ¯ ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ§ֳ¯ ֳ¬ֳ«ֳ®ֳ₪ ֳ²ֳ·ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ ֳ₪   
ֳ¬ֳ·ֳ¸ֳ ֳ÷ ֳ¸ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ«ֳ´ֳ¬ ֳ¥ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ· ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¸ֳ¡-ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ÷ֳ©ֳ©ֳ­   
ֳ ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ£ֳ¯ ֳ¥ֳ´ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ§ ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ°ֳ₪ ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ÷
ֳ¦ֳ¸ֳ·ֳ¥ֳ¸ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ× ֳ₪ֳ₪ֳ£ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ₪   
ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ÷ֳ§ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¸ - ֳ·ֳ¶ֳ÷ ֳ ֳ§ֳ¸ֳ÷   
ֳ®ֳ«ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ²ֳ÷ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪ ֳ®ֳ°ֳ¶ֳ§ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ¸ֳ ֳ¬ֳ© ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©   
ֳ®ֳ¹ֳ§ֳ· ֳ₪ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ©ֳ°ֳ¥ ֳ¡ֳ¹ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪   
ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ´ֳ¹ ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪   
ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ·ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ ֳ®ֳ¸ "ֳ₪ֳ¡ֳ°ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ£ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¹ֳ¢ ֳ₪ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ¥ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ¯ ֳ«ֳ¡ֳ±ֳ©ֳ± ֳ¬ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¢ֳ¡ֳ¸ֳ₪"   
ֳ₪ֳ²ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ÷ ֳ²ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ÷ ֳ÷ֳ¬ֳ®ֳ©ֳ£ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ²ֳ¬ ֳ®ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ§ֳ·ֳ¸   
ֳ®ֳ₪ ֳ®ֳ±ֳ÷ֳ÷ֳ¸ ֳ¡ֳ·ֳ¥ֳ´ֳ±ֳ÷ ֳ¢ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­?   
ֳ₪ֳ÷ֳ¸ֳ¹ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ ֳ§ֳ¦ֳ·   
ֳ©ֳ¶ֳ©ֳ¸ֳ÷ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¢ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪   
ֳ®ֳ§ֳ¡ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¸ֳ· ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ·ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ­   
ֳ¢ֳ ֳ¥ֳ± ֳ¥ֳ₪ֳ±ֳ£ֳ¸ֳ₪ ֳ₪ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ©ֳ÷: ֳ²ֳ¬ ֳ₪ֳ ֳ©ֳ¹ ֳ¥ֳ´ֳ²ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¬ֳ«ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ₪   
ֳ£ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¸ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¬ֳ´ֳ÷ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ¯   
ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ©ֳ₪ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ÷   
ֳ÷ֳ₪ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ× ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ ֳ₪ ֳ£ֳ©ֳ ֳ¢ֳ°ֳ¥ֳ±ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¯   
ֳ´ֳ©ֳ¸ֳ®ֳ©ֳ£ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ - ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ©ֳ₪ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ₪   
ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¸ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪ ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ¸ֳ¡ ֳ´ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­   
ֳ´ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ§ ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ¹ ֳ¬ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷   
ֳ·ֳ©ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ¸ ֳ₪ֳ₪ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ ֳ₪ ֳ¬ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ¡ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ₪ֳ÷ֳ¬ֳ®ֳ©ֳ£ֳ©ֳ­   
ֳ₪ֳ÷ֳ ֳ®ֳ÷ ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ«ֳ°ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ₪"ֳ± ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ±ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ© ֳ²ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¸ ֳ®ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ°ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪   
ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¥ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¢ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ«ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ¶ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ₪ֳ´ֳ²ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ₪ֳ÷ֳ¬ֳ®ֳ©ֳ£ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ²ֳ¶ֳ®ֳ­   
ֳ°ֳ·ֳ¥ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ²ֳ¡ֳ¸ (ֳ®ֳ ֳ®ֳ¸)   
ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¢ֳ¡ֳ¸ֳ₪ ֳ¡ֳ«ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¢ֳ¯-ֳ£' (ֳ®ֳ ֳ®ֳ¸)   
ֳ₪ֳ₪ֳ¹ֳ´ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ¦ֳ©ֳ·ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¢ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ«ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ '-ֳ£'   
ֳ®ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¥ֳ·ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ±ֳ¨ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳ·ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ¦ֳ­   
ֳ§ֳ©ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ¬-ֳ´ֳ₪ ֳ¥ֳ§ֳ¥ֳ¹ ֳ¬ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­   
ֳ÷ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ¨ֳ«ֳ°ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ₪ ֳ¥ֳ ֳ¬ֳ¢ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ ֳ¥ ֳ§ֳ±ֳ¸ ֳ¡ֳ÷ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ°ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸?   
ֳ₪ֳ²ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ₪ ֳ¹ֳ¬ ֳ¸ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ±ֳ¥ֳ£   
ֳ¸ֳ₪ֳ©ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¬ֳ¬ֳ  ֳ´ֳ§ֳ£: ֳ²ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ§ֳ·ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ¬ֳ£ֳ¸ֳ«ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ₪ֳ¨ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷ֳ¸ ֳ¬ֳ¬ֳ©ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ£ ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¡ֳ£ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©ֳ¥ֳ÷   
ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ¸ֳ¥ֳµ ֳ²ֳ£ ֳ¬-37 - ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ£ ֳ®ֳ¹ֳ§ֳ· ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ© ֳ¬ֳ¹ֳ©ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ¡ ֳ¡ֳ«ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ₪   
ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ·ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¥ֳ¸ֳ ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ©ֳ©ֳ­
ֳ®ֳ«ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ©ֳ÷ ֳ²ֳ÷ֳ©ֳ·ֳ₪ ֳ®ֳ°ֳ¶ֳ§ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ¸ֳ ֳ¬ֳ© ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ÷ֳ®ֳ¨ֳ©   
ֳ®ֳ₪ ֳ°ֳ²ֳ¹ֳ₪ ֳ²ֳ­ ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¸ֳ ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ©ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¡ֳ«ֳ©ֳ÷ֳ₪?   
ֳ®ֳ´ֳ¬ֳ ֳ© ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ₪ֳ¸ֳ ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ©ֳ©ֳ­ - ֳ§ֳ¬ֳ· ֳ¡   
ֳ®ֳ´ֳ¬ֳ ֳ© ֳ₪ֳ®ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ₪ֳ¸ֳ ֳ¹ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ©ֳ©ֳ­ - ֳ§ֳ¬ֳ· ֳ    
ֳ§ֳ¦ֳ·ֳ¥ֳ÷
ֳ®ֳ§ֳ¡ֳ¸ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¸ֳ· ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ·ֳ¡ֳ©ֳ­   
ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ§ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¹ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ­: ֳ ֳ´ֳ± ֳ¥ֳ ֳ§ֳ÷ ֳ¡ֳ´ֳ²ֳ¥ֳ¬ֳ¥ֳ÷ ֳ₪ֳ§ֳ¹ֳ¡ֳ¥ֳ¯   
ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ°ֳ§ֳ©ֳ­ ֳ¥ֳ®ֳ¥ֳ¹ֳ¢ֳ©ֳ­: ֳ₪ֳ ֳ´ֳ± ֳ«ֳ±ֳ´ֳ¸ֳ₪   
Valid XHTML 1.0 Strict לדף הראשי  של משרד החינוך גלים סנונית גלים סנונית מטה מל" מ משרד החינוך אוניברסיטת חיפה